Name: Levent BAT

e-mail address:

Proposed Primary Site:

PRISTINESS: Primary sites should be as free as possible from anthropogenic stressors, and natural stressors atypical of the region (e.g. reduced salinity, high turbidity).

The Black Sea is located between the latitudes 40°55' and 46°42' N and the longitudes 27°27' and 41°42' E. The Black Sea has historically been one of the most biologically productive regions in the world. Sinop Peninsula is located on the Southern coasts of the Black Sea. In Sinop 35°00 E and 42°00 N, 35°13' E and 42°03' N for the protection of fauna include Aquatic Products no. 1380. It is also SCUBA Diving for Hunting is forbidden, Law date 19/08/1989 Oficial Newspaper no. 20257.



List potential sources of pollution that are likely to impinge on the site:-

Industrial pollution: no

Agricultural pollution: rare

Mining: no mining

Dumping: the discharge of untreated domestic wastes, harbour activities, the dumping of ship wastes and other coastal activities

Dredging: rare

What is the human population of the site in total and per unit area? What is the average population growth per year?

In the last decade, the local population in Sinop, Turkey is about 25000, however the population increases up to 60000 in summer.

How is sewage disposed of? If possible give an estimate of the quantity and quality of the output.

Anthropogenic nutrient inputs into the Dışliman of Sinop increased rapidly in recent years with enhanced inputs from sewage effluent. The sewage discharge consists primarily of untreated human wastes and domestic wastes. The outfall has been in operation for over 20 years and discharges to the Dışliman of Sinop. The effects of this increase of nutrients in the Dışliman is noticeable in the increase of opportunistic mat-forming macroalgae including such species as Ulva lactuca and Enteremorpha linza. The sewer outfall at Dışliman has a local effect on the intertidal macrofaunal community and is not severe enough to cause the absence of all but the most tolerant species

Describe the extent of commercial fishing in the area. Please specify the kinds of gear used (trawling, seine netting, lobster pots etc.)

Trawling and seine netting are used as commercial fishing in the area.

Give an account of tourist activities in the area (how many tourists per year; what do they do?).

The population increases up to 60000 in July and August. They do picnics and swimming.

Provide evidence that there are no natural stressors such as high turbidity or reduced salinity that are atypical of the region.

Many studies show that Sinop peninsula has the most biological diversity compare to other parts of Turkish Black Sea coast (see References).

Give references to any chemical or physical data that support the claim that this is a pristine site.

BAT, L., Öztürk, M. and Öztürk, M. (1996). Heavy metal amounts in some commercial teleost fish from the Black Sea. O.M.Ü. Fen Dergisi, Cilt 7, Sayı 1, 117-135.

BAT, L. and Öztürk, M. (1997). Heavy Metal Levels in Some Organisms from Sinop Peninsula of the Black Sea. Tr. J. Engineering and Environ. Sci., 21, 29-33.

BAT, L., Gündoğdu, A., Öztürk, M. and Öztürk, M. (1999). Copper, zinc, lead and cadmium concentrations in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck 1819 from Sinop coast of the Black Sea. Tr. J. Zoology, 23, 321-326.

BAT, L., Gönlügür, G., Andaç, M., Öztürk, M. and Öztürk, M. Heavy Metal concentrations in the Sea Snail Rapana venosa (Valenciennes, 1846) from Sinop Coasts of the Black Sea. Turkish J. Mar. Sci., 6 (3), 227-240.

BAT, L., Akbulut, M., Sezgin, M. and Çulha, M. (2001). Effects of sewage pollution the structure of the community of Ulva lactuca, Enteremorpha linza and rocky macrofauna in Dışliman of Sinop. Tr. J. Biology, 25, 93-102.


HABITATS: The site should comprise a mosaic of habitats in a well-defined area that are representative of the region.

List the range of habitats present at the site:-


Rock: available

Sand: available

Mud: available


Rock: available

Sand: available

Mud: available

Seagrass beds: available

How representative is this site of its region (i.e. what regional habitats are missing)?

BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The site should already be well-studied (i.e. biodiversity studies should not rely entirely on new research).

For what groups of organisms are comprehensive inventories available? Please list major taxa in each category below, and list publications.







Table 1: Phytoplankton of Sinop Coast of the Black Sea


Oscillatoria sp.


Asterionella japonica

Bacillaria paradoxa

Bacteriastrum delicatulum

  1. hyalinum

Biddulphia sp.

Ceratoulina pelagica

Coscinadiscus radiatus

C. granii

C. perforatus

C. concinus

C. centralis

C. lineatus

C. marginatus

C. perforatus var. pavillardi

C. radiatus

Cylindrotheca closterium

Ditylum brigtwelli

Grammatophora marina

Guinaria flaccida

Hemiaulus hauckii

Lauderia sp.

Leptocylindrus danicus

  1. minimus

Thalasiosira rotula

  1. nitschoides

T. allenii

T. anguste-lineata

T. decipiens

T. eccentrica

T. gravida

T. nordenskioeldi



Sceletonema costatum

Melosira borreri

M. sp.

Rhizosolenia alata

R. fraglissima

R. styliformis

R. calcar-avis

R. delicatula

R. imbricata var. shrubsolei

R. setigera

R. stolterfortii

Leptocylindrus danicus

Chaetoceros curvisetus

C. affinis

C. decipiens

C. lauderi

C. affine

C. breve

C. compressum

C. constrictum

C. curvisetum

  1. danicum

C. debile

C. decipiens

  1. didymum var. protuberrans

C. gracile

C. holsaticum

C. lacimiosum

C. lorensiamum

C. messanense

C. pseudocurvisetum

  1. sociale

C. subsecundum

C. tortissimum

C. vistulae

C. wighami

Ditylum brightwellei

Thalassionema nitzchioides

Thalassiothrix frauenfeldi

T. longissima

T. mediterranea

Striatella delicatula

Skeletonema costatum

Stephanoðyzsis palmeriana

  1. turris

Striatella delicatula

  1. interrupta


Licmophora ehrenbergii


L. abbreviata

  1. flabeliata

L. paradoxa

Navicula crabro

Navicula sp.

N. lanceolata

  1. pennata

N. zostereti

Nitzchia closterium

N. seriata

N. longissima

N. pungens

N. paradoxa

N. sigma

Pleorasigma angulatum

  1. spenceri

Pseudo-nitzshia delicatissima

  1. pungens

Rhabdonema adriaticum

Achnantes longipes

Cocconeis scutellum

Dictyocha sp.

Climacosphenia elongata


Eutreptiella sp.


Hexacanthicum asteroconthion


Emiliania hixleyi


Dictyocha fibula var. messanensis

  1. polyactis

D. speculum

Octactis octonaria



Prorocentrum compressum

Prorocentrum micans

Prorocentrum scutellum

Prorocentrum balticum

Dinophyis caudata

Dinophyis fortii

Dinophyis scintillans

Dinophyis acuminata

Dinophyis acuta

Dinophyis diegensis

Dinophyis hastata

Dinophyis infundibula

Dinophyis parvula

Dinophyis punctata

Dinophyis rotundata

Dinophyis rudgei

Dinophyis sacculus

Dinophyis lenticulata

Heterocapsa triquetra

Scripsiella sp.

Peridinium depressum

Peridinium curtipes

Peridinium granii

Peridinium divergens

Peridinium steinii

Peridinium pellucidum

Peridinium pentagonum

Gonyaulax digitale

Gonyaulax polyedra

Gonyaulax polygramma

Gonyaulax brostris

Gonyaulax diacantha

Gonyaulax diegensis

Gonyaulax monacantha

  1. spinifera

Gymnodinium nelsoni

Heterocapsa triquedra

Noctulica scintillans

Oxytoxum sp.

Prorocentrum aporum

Prorocentrum balticum

Prorocentrum compressum

Prorocentrum cordatum

Prorocentrum dentatum

Prorocentrum maximum

Prorocentrum micans

Prorocentrum minimum

Prorocentrum pyriforme

  1. rotundatum

P. scutellum

P. triestrinum

Protocaratium aerolatum

Protoperidinium brevipes

P. brochi

P. claudicans

P. conicoides

P. conicum var. concavum

  1. conicum var. conicum

P. depressum

P. diabolus

P. divergens

P. globolus

P. grande granii

P. longipes

  1. pellucidium

P. pentagonum

P. punctulatum

P. pyriforme

P. steinii

P. subinerne

Pyrocystis elegans

P. horologium

Scripsiella trochoidea

Ceratium pentagonum

Ceratium furca var. eugrammum

Ceratium furca var. furca

Ceratium fusus var. fusus

Ceratium fusus var. schuetti

Ceratium fusus var. seta

Ceratium longirostrum

Ceratium inflatum

Ceratium tripos var. atlanticum

Ceratium tripos var. pulchellum f. pulchellum

Ceratium belone

Ceratium biceps

Ceratium carriense var. volans

Ceratium compressum

Ceratium declinatum f. majus

Ceratium declinatum f. normale

Ceratium hexachanthum var. pavillardi

Ceratium horrýdum var. denticulatum

Ceratium horrýdum var.horrýdum

Ceratium incisum

Ceratium infilatum

Ceratium lineatum

Ceratium kofoidii

Ceratium massiliense var. armatum

Ceratium teres

Ceratium strictum

Table 2: Zooplankton of Sinop Coast of the Black Sea


Aurelia aurita

Rhizostoma pulma


Pleurobranchia pileus

Beroe ovata

Mnemiopsis leidyi


Sagitta setosa

S. maxima


Oikopleura diocica


Evadne spinifera

Evadne tergestina

Podon polyphemoides

Calaus helgodancilus

Calanus euxinus

Paracalanus parvus

Pseudocalanus elongatus

Acartia clausi

Oithona nana

Oithona similis

Upagebia pusilla (Zoea larvae)

Penilia avirostris

Balanus balanoides


Tintinopsis campanula

Tintinopsis sylindrica

Tintinopsis beroidea

Metacylis mereschowskii

Favella ehrenbergi

Coxliella annulata


Nereis sp. (Nectochaeta larvae)


Rapana venosa (larvae)

Mytilus galloprovincialis (larvae)


Table 3. The list of Algae of Sinop Coast of the Black Sea

(*=New record for Turkish coast of the Black Sea, **=New record for the Black Sea, ***=New record for Turkish alga flora).





Ectochaeta cladophorae (Horn.) Pankow (**)

Entocladia viridis Reinke

Phaeophila dendroides (PL. Et. H.M. Crouan) Batt.

Pringsemiella scutata (Reinke) Höhnel ex Marchewianka

Ulvella lens P.L. et H.M. Crouan


Ulothrix flacca (Dillw.) Thur.

U. implexa (Kütz.) Kütz.

U. tenerrima (Kütz.) Kütz.

U. zonata (Weber et Muhr) Kütz. (*)



Blidingia marginata (J.Ag.) P. Dang.

B. minima (Naeg. Ex Kütz.) Kylin var. minima


Enteremorpha ahleriana (Roth) Grev.

E. clathrata (Roth) Grev.

E. compressa (L.) Nees var. compressa

E. flexuosa (Wulf.) J.Ag. subsp. flexuosa

E. intestinalis (L.) Nees. f. intestinalis

E. f. saprobia Vinogr.

E. kylinii Bliding

E. linza (L.) J.Ag. var. linza

  1. linza var. crispata (Bert.) J.Ag.

E. linza var. minor Schiffner

  1. muscoides (Clem.) Crem.

E. prolifera (O.F. Müll.) J.Ag. subsp. prolifera

(=E. crinata (Roth) J.Ag.)

(=E. ramulosa (Smith) Carmichael)

  1. prolifera subsp. gullmariensis Bliding (**)

E. prolifera subsp. radiata (J.Ag.) Bliding (**)

Ulva fasciata Delile

  1. lactuca L.
  2. rigida C.Ag.



Chaetomorpha aerea (Dillw.) Kütz

  1. linum (O.F. Müll.) Kütz.

C. mediterranea (Kütz.) Kütz. var. mediterranea (*)

(=C. capillaris (Kütz.) Boerg. var. capillaris)

Chaetomorpha sp.

Cladophora albida (Nees) Kütz.

  1. coelothrix Kütz.

(=C. repens (J.Ag.) Kütz.)

  1. dalmatica (Kütz.) (*)

(=C. oblitterata Söderström)

  1. echinus (Biasoletto) Kütz.

C. glomerata (L.) Kütz. var. glomerata

  1. hutchinsiae (Dillw.) Kütz.

C. laetevirens (Dillw.) Kütz.

  1. lehmanniana (Lindenb.) Kütz.

(=C. ramulosa Kütz.)

(=C. utriculosa Kütz.)

  1. prolifera (Roth) Kütz.

C. rupestris (Roth) Kütz.

C. sericea (Roth) Kütz.

(=C. rudolphiana (C.Ag.) Kütz.)

  1. trichotoma (C.Ag.) Kütz.

C. vagabunda (L.) Hoek (***)



Bryopsis corymbosa J.Ag. (*)

B. cupressina Lumour

(=B. Penicillata Kütz.)

B. hypnoides Lam. var. hypnoides

B. hypnoides var. flagellata Kütz.

  1. plumosa (Huds.) C.Ag. var.plumosa

B.plumosa var. prolifera Schiffin (***)


Codium tomentosum (Huds.) Stackh.



Gomphosphaeria aponina Kütz.


Calothrix confevicola Kütz.

Rivularia polyotis (C.Ag.) Born. et Flah.


Lyngbya confervoides C.Ag.

  1. limnetica Lemn.

L. martensiana Menegh.

Phormidium ambiguum Gomont.

  1. tenue (Menegh.) Gomont.



Ectocarpus confervoides (Dillw.)

E. siliculosus (Dillw.) Lyngb. var. siliculosus

  1. siliculosis var. dasycarpus (Kuckuck) Gallardo

E. siliculosis var. hiemalis (Crouan ex Kjelm.) Gallardo

  1. siliculosis var. penicillatus C.Ag.

Feldmannia caspitula (J.Ag.) Knoep-Peg. var. lebelii (Aresch. ex Crouan) Knoe-Peg.

  1. irregularis (Kütz.) Hamel

Hincksia sandriana (Zanard.) Silva

Kuetzingiella battersii (Born.) Kornm. var. battersii

Microsyphar polysiphoniae Kuckuck

Streblonema oligosporum Strömf.

  1. sphaericum (Derb. et Sol.) Thur.


Corynophlaea umbellata (C.Ag.) Kütz.

Myriactula arabica (Kütz.) J.Feldm.

  1. rivulariae (Shur.) J.Feldm.


Myrionema orbiculare J.Ag.

  1. strangulans Grev.


Spermatochnus paradoxus (Roth) J.Ag.

Stilophora rhizoides (Turn.) J.Ag.

  1. tuberculosa (Horn.) Reinke


Asperococcus bullosus Lam. f. bullosous

  1. compressus Griff. ex Hook

A. fistulosus (Huds.) Hook

Punctaria plantaginea (Roth) Grev


Striaria attenuata (Grev.) Grev. f. attenuata


Petalonia zosterifolia (Reinke) Kuntze

Scytosiphon simplicissimus (Clem.) Crem

S. lomentaria (Lyngbye)


Zanardinia prototypus (Nardo) Nardo


Cladostephus spongiosus (Huds.) C.Ag. f. verticillatus (Lightf.) prud ‘homme van Reine


Sphacelaria cirrosa (Roth) C.Ag. f. cirosa

  1. cirosa f. mediterranea Sauv.


Halopteris scoparia (L.) Sauv

  1. filicina (Gratel.) Kütz.


Dictyota dichotoma (Huds.) Lam. var. dichotoma

  1. linearis (C.Ag.) Grev.

Dilophus fasciola (Roth) Howe

  1. repens (J.Ag.) J.Ag.

Padina pavonia (L.) Lam.


Cystoseira barbata C.Ag. f. barbata

  1. barbata f. aurantia (Kütz.) Giaccone

C. corniculata (Wulf.) Zanard.

  1. crinata (Desf.) Bory. f. crinita

C. crinata f. bosphrica (Sauv.) Zinova et Kalugina

C. schiffneri Hamel f. schiffneri


Sargassum acinarum (L.) C.Ag.

  1. hornschuchii C.Ag.

S. vulgare C.Ag.



Chroodactylon ornatum (C.Ag.) Basson

Stylonema alsidii (Zanard.) Drew.


Erythrocladia subintegra Rosenvinge

Erythrotrichia carnea (Dillw.) J.Ag.


Bangia atropurpurea (Roth) C.Ag.

Porphyra leucosticta Thur. in Le Jolis

P. minor Zanard.

P. umbilicalis (L.) Kütz.


Audouinella codicola (Boerg.) Garbary

A. crassipes (Boerg.) Boerg.

A. daviesii (Dillw.) Woelkerling

A. hallandica (Kylin) Woelkerling

A. humilis (Rosenv.) Garbay

A. leptonema (Rosenv.) Garbay

A. membranacea (Magnus) Papenf.

A. microscopica (Naeg.) Woelkerling

A. parvula (Kylin) P. Dixon in Parke et P. Dixon

A. rosulata Rosenv.

A. saviana (Menegh.) Woelkerling

A. secundata (Lyngbye) P. Dixon in Parke et P. Dixon

  1. virgatula (Harv. in Hooker) P. Dixon


Liagora viscida (Forssk.) C.Ag.

Nemalin helminthoides (Velley) Batt.


Gelidiella antipai (Celan)

G. ramellosa (Kütz.) J. Feldm. et Hamel

Gelidium capillaceum (Gmel.) Kütz. f. capillaceum

G. capillaceum f. crinita Hauck

G. crinale (Turn.) Lam. f. crinale

G. crinale f. corybosum Kütz.

G. latifolium (Grevar.) Born. in Born. et Thur. var. latifolium

G. latifolium var. hystrix (J.Ag.) Hauck

G. melanoideum (Schousb. ex Born.) var. filamentosum Schousb.

  1. spathulatum (Kütz.) Born.

Pterocladia capillacea (Gmelin) Born. and Thur. f. pinnata


Gracilaria verrucosa (Huds.) Papenf.


Hypnea musciformis (Wulf.) Lam.


Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turn.) Mastius

Phyllophora crispa (Huds.) Dixon

P. brodiaei (Turn.) J.Ag. f. brodiaei

  1. pseudoceranoides (Gmel.) Newr. and A:R.A. Taylor


Lomentrica articulata (Huds.) Lyngb.

  1. clavellosa (Turn.) Gaill.


Amphiroa rigida Lam.

Choreonema thuretii (Born.) Schmitz.

Corallina granifera Ellis et Solander

C. officinalis L.

C. elongata Ellis et Solander

Fosliella farinosa (Lam.) Howe var. farinosa

Jania corniculata (L.) Lam.

J. rubens (L.) Lam.

Lithophyllum orbiculatum (Foslie) Foslie

Lithothamnion corticiforme (Kütz.) Foslie

Melobesia membranacea (Esper) Lam.

Phymatholithon lenormandii (Aresch. in J.Ag.) Adey

Titanoderma corallinae (P.L. et H.M. Crouan) Woelkerling

T. cystoseirae (Hauck) Huve

  1. pustulatum (Lam.) Woelkerling


Grateloupia dichotoma J.Ag. f. dichotoma


Peyssonnelia squamaria (Gmel.) decaisne

  1. rubra (Grev.) J.Ag.


Antithamnion cruciatum (C.Ag.) Naeg. var. cruciatum

  1. tenuissimum (Hauck) Schiffn.

Callithamnion corymbosum (Smith) Lyngb.

  1. granulatum (Ducl.) C.Ag.

Ceramium ciliatum (Ellis) Ducl. var. ciliatum

  1. ciliatum var. robustrum (J.Ag.) G. Mazoyer

C. circinatum (Kütz.) J.Ag.

C. codii (Rishards) G. Mazoyer

C. deslongchampii Chauv.

C. diaphanum (Lightf.) Roth var. diaphanum

C. diaphanum var. lophophorum G. Feldm.-Mazoyer

  1. diaphanum var. strictum (Kütz.) G. Feldm.-Mazoyer

C. diaphanum var. zostericola Thur. f. zostericola

  1. diaphanum var. zostericola f. minuscula G. Mazoyer

C. flabelligerum J.Ag. var. flabelligerum

  1. rubrum (Huds.) C.Ag. var. rubrum

C. rubrum var. barbatum (Kütz.) J.Ag.

C. rubrum var. implexo-contortum Solier

  1. tenerrimum (Mart.) Okamura var. tenerrimum

C. tenuissimum (Lyngb.) J.Ag. var. tenuissimum

Compsothamnion thuyoides (Smith) Schmitz

Pterothamnion plumula (Ellis) Naeg. var. plumula

Spermothamnion flabellatum Born. in Born. et Thur.


Apoglossum ruscifolium (Turn). J.Ag.

Hypoglossum woodwardii Kütz. var. woodwardii

Nitophyllum punctatum (Stackh.) Grev. f. punctatum


Dasya baillouviana (Gmel.) Mont.

  1. hutchinsiae Harv. in Hook.

Dasyopsis cervicornis (J.Ag.) Schimitz

Heterosiphonia plumosa (Ellis) Batt.


Chondria boryana (De Not.) De Toni

  1. dasyphylla (Woodw.) C.Ag.

C. tenuissima (Withering) C.Ag.

Dipterosiphonia rigens (Schousb.) Falkenb.

Herposiphonia secunda (C.Ag.) Ambronn f. secunda

  1. secunda f. tenella (C.Ag.) Wynne

Laurencia obtusa (Huds.) Lam. var. obtusa

L. obtusa var. gracilis (Kütz.) Hauck

  1. obtusa var. laxa (Kütz.) Ardiss.

L. paniculata (C.Ag.) J.Ag.

L. papillosa (Forsk.) Grev.

L. pinnatifida (Gmel.) Lam.

Lophosiphonia obscura (C.Ag.) Falkenb.

L. subadunca (Kütz.) Falkenb.

Polysiphonia breviarticulata (C.Ag.) Zanard.

  1. brodiaei (Dillw.) Grev.

P. denudata (Dillw.) Grev.

P. elongata (Huds.) Harv. in Hook.

P. nigrescens (Huds.) Grev. in Hook.

  1. opaca (C.Ag.) Zanard.

P. paniculata Mont

P. pulvinata Kütz.

  1. sertularioides (Gratel.) J.Ag.

P. tenerrima Kütz.

P. tripinnata J.Ag.

P. ureceolata (Lighf. ex Dillwyn) Grev.

P. variegata (C.Ag.) Zanard.

P. violacea (Roth) Spregel

Pterosiphonia pennata (Roth) Falkenb.




Cymodoce nodosa (Ucaria)


Table 4 . The list of Invertebrates of Sinop Coast of the Black Sea


Plagiostomum girardi


Enoplus meridionalis


Protodrilus flavocapitatus

Grubea limbata

Sphaerosyllic hystrix

Spirorbis borealis (Daudin)

Fabricia sabella (Ehrenberg)

Hediste diversicolor (Müller)

Nereis virens (Sars)

Tubifex sp.


Actinia equina


Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck

Cyclope neritea

Patella vulgata Linnaeus

Monodonta lineata (da Costa)

Bittium reticulatum (da Costa)

Cerithium vulgatum Bruguiè re

Hinia reticulata (Linnaeus)

Cardium edule (Linnaeus)

Theodoxus fluviatilis L., 1758 (*)

Hydrobia ventrosa Montagu, 1803 (*)

Donacilla cornea Poli, 1795 (*)

Abra alba Wood

Nassa sp.

Tapes sp.




Semibalanus balanoides (Linnaeus) (Barnacles balanoides)


Eriphia verrucosa (Forskal,1775)

Liocarcinus depurator (Linnaeus, 1758)

Xantho poressa (Olivi, 1792)

Pachygrapsus marmoratus (Fabricius, 1787)

Carcinus aestuarii Nardo,1847

Brachynotus sexdentatus (Risso, 1827)

Palaemon adspersus Rathke, 1837

P. elegans Rathke, 1837

P. serratus (Pennant)

Crangon crangon (Linnaeus, 1758)

Pisidia longimana (Risso, 1816)

Diogenes pugilator (Roux, 1829)

Upogebia pusilla (Pategna, 1792)


Ampelisca diadema Costa, 1853

A. pseudospinimana Bellan-Santini &Kaim-Malka, 1977)

Amphitoes helleri Karaman, 1975

A. ramondi Audoin, 1826

Leptocheirus pilosus Zaddach, 1844

Apherusa chiereghinii Giordani-Soika, 1950

Erichthonius brasiliensis (Dana, 1855)

  1. punctatus (Bate, 1857)

Atylus massilensis Bellan-Santini, 1975

Dexamine spinosa (Montagu, 1813)

Echinogammarus olivii (Milne Edwards, 1830)

Gammarellus angulosus (Rathke, 1843)

Gammarus aequicauda (Martynov, 1931)

  1. crinicornis Stock, 1966

G. insensibilis Stock, 1966

  1. subtypicus Stock, 1966

G. locusta (Linnaeus)

Melita palmata (Montagu, 1804)

Bathyporeia guilliamsoniona (Bate, 1857)

Jassa marmorata Holmes, 1903

J. ocia (Bate, 1857)

Stenethoe monoculoides (Montagu, 1813)

Hyale pontica Rathke, 1837

H. crassipes (Heller, 1866)

Orchestia cavimana Heller, 1865

  1. gammarella (Pallas, 1766)

O. mediterranea Costa, 1853

O. montagui Audouin, 1826

O. platensis Kroyer, 1845

O. stephenseni Cecchini, 1928

Parhyale aquilina (Costa, 1857)

Talorchestia deshayesii (Audouin, 1826)

Caprella danilevskii Czerniavski, 1868

  1. liparotensis Haller, 1879

C. rapax Mayer, 1890

C. linearis (Linnaeus)

Phtisica marina Slabber, 1769

Tritaeta gibbosa Bate, 1862

Corophium acherisicum

Microdeutopus gryllotalpa


Idotea baltica (Pallas)

Sphaeroma serratum (Fabricius)

Gnathia maxillaris

Eurydice sp.


Tanais vittatus


Tisbe furcata

Harpacticoids copepod


Cypridina mediterranea


Hydracarina sp.



List any other publications relating specifically to the biodiversity or environment at the site.

List publications relating to historical/time-series data at the site.

Is biodiversity information available in electronic form? If so, what is the nature of the database (CD-ROM, web-site)?


PROTECTION STATUS: The pristine nature of the site should be protected by legislation if it is to be a "flagship site" for future monitoring.

What conservation legislation (national, European, international) is currently in place, how well is it implemented and how long will it last?

The Ministry of Aquaculture, Forestry and Rural Affairs is responsible for the fauna and endemic species of Turkey. Research is carried out by the departments of biology and the various universities. To improve the coordination among research institutes, a Commite for Protection of Natural Live Resources has been formed by Turkish Scientific and Technological Research Institute, State Planning Institute, the Ministries of Environment, Forestry and Agriculture and Rural Affairs in 1994.

Besides the given laws, the European Treaty on the Protection of Wildlife and its Habitat, which was ratified by Turkey, the International Treaty Concerning the Protection of Wetlands as a Habitat for Aquativ Birds (RAMSAR, ratified in 1994), Convention on Monitoring the Trade of Endangered Wild Animals and Plants (CITES, ratified in 1994), Convention on Biodiversity (RIO).

General Directorate of Natural Parks and Wild Life of Game Animals, under the Ministry of Forestry reestablished in 1991, the Ministry of Tourism and the Ministry of Environment may share the responsibilities if the concerned area is within the aspects of relevant ministry.

Apart from the Forestry General Directorate, the following voluntary and organizations are also concerned with the subject: the Environment Foundation of Turkey, the Society for the Conservation of Nature in Turkey, the Forestry Society of Turkey, the Chamber of Forestry Engineers of Turkey and the Society for the Conservation of Natural Life.

SARIKUM where is an area 785 ha (Totally of marine, coastal, dune, lake and wetland ecosystems), is Nature Protection Area in Sinop, Turkey.

FACILITIES: The infrastructure for biodiversity research should be available. There should also be a national commitment in terms of financing and scientific activity (i.e funding should not be entirely dependent on the success of any future EU programme).

How accessible is the location? By boat or from coast

Is it limited seasonally (e.g. not accessible in winter)? No

Is it accessible by car or by boat (indicate means of transport and distance from laboratory facilities in km)? Yes, laboratory is near the sea.

What is the status of local facilities:-

Laboratory: 6 lobs are available in the Faculty

Boats: 1 boat is available belongs to the Faculty

Are these facilities available for guest researchers?


What facilities are there for SCUBA diving?

All facilities are available for SCUBA diving. In our faculty SCUBA diving courses are given every year.

What housing is available?

Guest housing is available.

List the sources of funding currently in place specifically for biodiversity research at this site (from where and how much).

NATO Linkage Grant

Turkish Scientific and Technical Research Council (TUBITAK)

University of Ondokuz Mayıs Research Found

List by name the persons currently involved in biodiversity research at this site, their roles and the percentage of their time spent on this research.






Please use this section to add any additional supporting comments, for example what do you think is special about your site from the biodiversity point of view, why is it important to monitor biodiversity there, and what is the public awareness of this?


The Black Sea has historically been one of the most biologically productive regions in the world (Ivanov and Beverton, 1985; Mee, 1992). Foe example, it has 168 species of fish (Zaitsev and Mamaev, 1997), there are only a few species of economic importance and the supply of fishes is limited because of intensive fishing, industrialisation and urbanisation have caused fisheries the most favoured species to decline (Anonymous, 1989; Kideys, 1994). In addition, of the numerous industrial, sewage and agricultural wastes reach the Black Sea through some rivers such as Dnieper, Danube, Odessa, Kherson that are heavily polluted in several places (Mee, 1992; Eremeev et al., 1995; Cociasu et al., 1996). The dumping of wastes in the Black Sea provides a significant source of metal and nutrients input (Hacısalihoğlu et al., 1991; Tuğrul et al., 1992; Kubilay et al., 1995). The Turkish Black Sea Coast is also rich in mineral ores especially eastern part. Many of the ores are being under processed. However, in terms of the number of species, the Black Sea fauna has not suffered a decline in biodiversity in recent decades (Zaitsev and Mamaev, 1997).

The Black Sea itself has already been the victim of unmanaged fisheries, of unrestricted intense shipping activities, of mineral exploitation and of the dumping of toxic wastes (Mee, 1992). Consequently, organic and inorganic pollutants are accumulated here (Eremev et al., 1995). Persistent substances are sometimes concentrated in food chains and man may be exposed to an accumulated hazard.

Due to both natural causes and to the pollution deposited in it by large rivers carriying wastewaters from the industrialized countries, the pollution load of the Black Sea is significantly high. So, it is difficult to find clean coast in Black Sea. Whereas, Sinop peninsula is clean and untouched place. In terms of Biodiversity this place is rich in plankton biomass, and therefore, in fish that live on this biomass.

The concentration of heavy metals such as zinc, copper, cadmium, nickel, lead, iron and manganese in marine biota collected from Sinop Peninsula of the Black Sea. When the data were compared with the guidelines (MAFF, 1995; The Food Safety Regulations, 1992) for heavy metals in fish and shellfish. From the public health point of view, the levels of the metals found in these studies are generally lower than the permitted levels and this in itself imposes a need for detailed investigation.