BIOMARE PRIMARY SITES: DETAILED QUESTIONNAIRE FORM
Name: Valentina Todorova
e-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org
Proposed Primary Site: Nature reserve Kaliakra
PRISTINESS: Primary sites should be as free as possible from anthropogenic stressors, and natural stressors atypical of the region (e.g. reduced salinity, high turbidity).
List potential sources of pollution that are likely to impinge on the site:-
Main crops: wheat (50%), sunflower (30%), maize (25%).
Livestock: poultry 25 823 heads, swine 4 700 heads, sheep 12 882 heads, cattle 1 122 heads (1995 est.).
Pollution from agriculture is considered insignificant especially recently (last 12 years) because of reduced fertilization of land. ]
One third of the area comprises natural pastures and steppes, woodlands and bushes and coastal wetlands these are situated in a strip along the coast. The entire terrestrial part of the reserve itself is uncultivated land with natural habitats. (See map.jpg)
What is the human population of the site in total and per unit area? What is the average population growth per year?
- Balgarevo population 1 911 people, distance to the reserve boundaries - 4 km.
- Sveti Nikola population 310 people, distance to the reserve - 2.5 km.
- Kamen Briag population 152 people, distance to the reserve - 5 km.
The population per unit area is 2.58 people per hectare (48 068 ha total area/18 640 people).
The population growth rate for Bulgaria is negative 1.16% (2000 est.). The population in the adjacent to the reserve villages decreases as well.
How is sewage disposed of? If possible give an estimate of the quantity and quality of the output.
Describe the extent of commercial fishing in the area. Please specify the kinds of gear used (trawling, seine netting, lobster pots etc.)
Give an account of tourist activities in the area (how many tourists per year; what do they do?).
Provide evidence that there are no natural stressors such as high turbidity or reduced salinity that are atypical of the region.
Give references to any chemical or physical data that support the claim that this is a pristine site.
HABITATS: The site should comprise a mosaic of habitats in a well-defined area that are representative of the region.
List the range of habitats present at the site:-
Littoral actually it is pseudo-littoral, as the Black Sea is not tidal.
Rock: Bedrock is predominant. Rocks are covered by mussels (Mytilus, Mytilaster), brown algae (Cystoseira) and green algae (Ulva).
Shell gravel: Yes
Seagrass beds: No
How representative is this site of its region (i.e. what regional habitats are missing)?
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The site should already be well-studied (i.e. biodiversity studies should not rely entirely on new research).
Both terrestrial and marine biodiversity of Nature reserve "Kaliakra" have been studied and documented within the Bulgarian-Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme, 1997 (BSBCP). The results of the investigations have been published in a monograph (in Bulgarian) and a technical report with limited distribution (in English).
Zoobenthos, zooplankton and phytoplankton are sampled annually along West-East profile in front of cape Kaliakra beginning from 1 nautical mile from the coast, however the marine area of the reserve itself (500 m from the coastline) is not monitored.
For what groups of organisms are comprehensive inventories available? Please list major taxa in each category below, and list publications.
List of macrobenthic groups encountered in "Kaliakra" reserve.
List of zooplankton groups encountered in "Kaliakra" reserve.
List of fish families encountered in the reserve
List of phytoplankton groups encountered at Kaliakra reserve
Kaneva-Abadjieva, V., 1962. Distribution of molluscs along Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Proceedings of the Institute of Fisheries Varna, Vol. II, 67-79 (In Bulgarian with French summary)
Konsulov, A., 1991. Investigations on the biology, ecology and significance of zooplankton in the Bulgarian Black Sea area. D.Sc. Thesis, BAS Press, 300 pp. (in Bulgarian)
Konsulov, A., 1995. Biodiversity of Bulgarian Black Sea Area. National Report. GEF Black Sea Environmental Programme. Institute of Oceanology BAS, Varna, 138pp. (in English)
Konsulova, T., 1984. Studies on the growth of mussel Mytilus galloprovinvialis Lam. in culture conditions on storm-proof floating systems in cape Kaliakra zone. Proceedings of the Institute of Fisheries - Varna, Vol.XXI, 119-141. (In Bulgarian with English summary)
Konsulova, Ts., A. Konsulov, S. Moncheva, 1997. Assessment of the marine biota biodiversity state in the close coastal zone adjacent to the reserve "Kaliakra". Technical Report on Bulgarian-Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme. Institute of Oceanology BAS, Varna, 79 pp. (in English)
Konsulova, Ts., A. Konsulov, S. Moncheva, A. Velikov, L. Kamburska, 1997. Contemporary state of phytoplankton, zooplankton and zoobenthos. In: Dobrudja and Kaliakra. Scientific reports Bulgarian-Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme. Agriculture University Press, Plovdiv, 77-87. (in Bulgarian)
Moncheva, S. and T. Konsulova, 1983. The phytoplankton as a food for the cultured mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam., in the area adjacent to cape Kaliakra, Bulgaria. Proceedings of the Institute of Fisheries - Varna, Vol.XX, 145-152. (In Bulgarian with English summery)
Petrova-Karadjova, V., 1975. Quantitative distribution and resources of the brown algae Cystoseira barbata (Good et Wood) Ag. along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Proceedings of the Institute of Fisheries Varna, Vol. XIV, 83-101. (In Bulgarian with English summary)
Rojdestvenskii, A., 1980. Hydrochemistry of Bulgarian Black Sea area. BAS Press, Sofia, 190 pp.
Sivkov, J., 1997. Ichthyophauna in the coastal area of reserve "Kaliakra". In: Dobrudja and Kaliakra. Scientific reports Bulgarian-Swiss Biodiversity Conservation Programme. Agriculture University Press, Plovdiv, 88-92. (in Bulgarian)
List publications relating to historical/time-series data at the site.
Is biodiversity information available in electronic form? If so, what is the nature of the database (CD-ROM, web-site)?
PROTECTION STATUS: The pristine nature of the site should be protected by legislation if it is to be a "flagship site" for future monitoring.
What conservation legislation (national, European, international) is currently in place, how well is it implemented and how long will it last?
FACILITIES: The infrastructure for biodiversity research should be available. There should also be a national commitment in terms of financing and scientific activity (i.e funding should not be entirely dependent on the success of any future EU programme).
How accessible is the location?
Is it limited seasonally (e.g. not accessible in winter)?
Is it accessible by car or by boat (indicate means of transport and distance from laboratory facilities in km)?
What is the status of local facilities:
Laboratory: The "Marine Biology and Ecology " department in the Institute of Oceanology, Varna is equipped with Olympus microscopes with suitable magnifications for taxonomic identification and counting of phytoplankton, zooplankton and zoobenthos. There are experts in all major taxonomic groups of phytoplankton, mezo- and macrozooplankton, macrozoobenthos, macrophytes and ichthyophauna.
Boats: Research ship "Academic". She is not very suitable for shallow coastal area sampling. Private boats and motor boats could be hired from the closest villages.
Are these facilities available for guest researchers?
YES - regarding the laboratory facilities. Guests can participate in the research cruises of ship "Academic" if funding is provided by some external project. Boat hires would be on the account of guest researcher.
What facilities are there for SCUBA diving?
What housing is available?
List the sources of funding currently in place specifically for biodiversity research at this site (from where and how much).
List by name the persons currently involved in biodiversity research at this site, their roles and the percentage of their time spent on this research.
Please use this section to add any additional supporting comments, for example what do you think is special about your site from the biodiversity point of view, why is it important to monitor biodiversity there, and what is the public awareness of this?
Cape Kaliakra is one of the symbols of the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast. The site is famous both for its history and for its wild nature saved pristine throughout the ages. The reserve occupies 687,5 ha and besides the steppe areas includes cliffs up to 70 m high. Kaliakra is the only Bulgarian reserve protecting aquatic area too - a stretch of sea 500 m wide and 8 km long. The limestone is punched with caves former refuges of the Monk Seal, now extinct from the Bulgarian coast.