MarBEF Data System



ERMS source details

Kroh, A. & Smith, A.B. (2010): The phylogeny and classification of post-Palaeozoic echinoids. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 8/2: 147-212.
142482
Kroh, A.; Smith, A. B.
2010
The phylogeny and classification of post-Palaeozoic echinoids
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology
8(2): 147-212
Publication
The relationships of post-Palaeozoic echinoids at family level are established through phylogenetic analysis of 169 taxa and 306 skeletal characters (excluding pedicellariae). Previous phylogenetic analyses of echinoids have either examined specific subgroups in detail or have looked at a relatively small number of taxa selected from across the class, with sparse sampling potentially affecting the reliability of results adversely. Our new analyses represent a compromise between encompassing the diversity of form that exists, while keeping the number of taxa to a level that does not make rigorous analysis impossibly time-consuming. In constructing the taxon-character data matrix we have encountered a surprising lack of primary data on plating pattern, lantern, and girdle structure for many supposedly “well-known” taxa. A well-resolved phylogenetic hypothesis was obtained and is used as the basis for a formal classification. Characters generally have a high retention index (>0.7) but low consistency index (<0.25) suggesting that, although characters are largely retained after they first evolve, most also undergo occasional reversal or convergence. Although parts of the resulting trees are only weakly supported (e.g. the precise sister group of the Irregularia), other parts are unambiguously resolved. Not unexpectedly, deep nodes are often not supported by unique apomorphies and higher taxa acquire their characteristic set of features over time. Diagnoses based on crown group taxa thus often fail to encompass fossil stem-group members adequately. Establishing the relationships of taxa at the root of large groups is hampered by limited character resolution. The influence of fossil taxa on the topology was explored by comparing the tree topologies obtained with and without their inclusion. We show that removal of fossils from stem groups makes no difference where their crown group is morphologically conservative, but has a major influence where extant sister groups are separated by large morphological gaps. Completeness of the echinoid record and its match to the stratigraphical record of first occurrences is tested using various metrics and found to be highly congruent, with irregular echinoids showing a higher congruence than regular ones. Keywords: Echinoids; phylogeny; cladistics; evolution; classification
RIS (EndNote, Reference Manager, ProCite, RefWorks)
BibTex (BibDesk, LaTeX)
Date
action
by
2013-01-12 18:30:12Z
created
db_admin

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAcroechinoidea (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAeropsidae Lambert, 1896 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorArbaciidae Gray, 1855 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorArbacioida (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAspidodiadematidae Duncan, 1889 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAspidodiadematoida (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAsterostomatidae Pictet, 1857 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAtelostomata (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorBrisasterinae Markov, 1994 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSchizasteridae Lambert, 1905 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorBrissidae Gray, 1855 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorBrissidina (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorBrissopsinae Lambert, 1905 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCalycina (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCalymnidae Mortensen, 1907 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCamarodonta (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCarinacea (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCassiduloida (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCidaridae Gray, 1825 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCidaridea Gray, 1825 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCidaroidea Gray, 1825 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCidarinae Mortensen, 1928 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCidarinae Gray, 1825 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCidaroida (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCidaroidea (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorClypeasteroida (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDiadematacea (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDiadematidae Gray, 1855 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDiadematoida (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinacea (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinidae Gray, 1825 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinidea (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinocardiinae Cooke, 1942 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinocyamidae Lambert & Thiéry, 1914 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinoidea (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinothuriidae Thomson, 1872 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinothurioida (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEuechinoidea (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEupatagidae Lambert, 1905 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorFibulariidae Gray, 1855 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHemiasteridae H. L. Clark, 1917 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHistocidaridae Lambert, 1900 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHistocidaridea Kroh & Smith, 2010 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHistocidaroidea Lambert, 1900 (original description)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHolasteroida (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHygrosomatinae Smith & Wright, 1990 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorIrregularia (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorLaganiformes (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorLoveniidae Lambert, 1905 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorMaretiidae Lambert, 1905 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorMeridosternata (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorMicrasterina (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorNeognathostomata (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorNeolampadidae Lambert, 1918 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorNeolampadina Philip, 1963 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorOdontophora Kroh & Smith, 2010 (original description)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPalaeotropidae Lambert, 1896 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPaleopneustidae A. Agassiz, 1904 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPaleopneustidea A. Agassiz, 1904 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPaleopneustoidea A. Agassiz, 1904 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPaleopneustina (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorParechinidae Mortensen, 1903 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPedinidae Pomel, 1883 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPedinoida (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhormosomatidae Mortensen, 1934 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPlexechinidae Mooi & David, 1996 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPourtalesiidae A. Agassiz, 1881 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorRhabdocidaridae Lambert, 1900 † (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSaleniidae L. Agassiz, 1838 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSalenioida (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSalenocidarini Smith & Wright, 1990 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSchizasteridae Lambert, 1905 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorScutellina (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpatangidae Gray, 1825 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpatangidea Fischer, 1966 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpatangoidea Gray, 1825 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpatangoida (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSperosomatinae Smith & Wright, 1990 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStereocidarinae Lambert, 1900 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStrongylocentrotidae Gregory, 1900 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTemnopleuridae A. Agassiz, 1872 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTemnopleuridea (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorToxopneustidae Troschel, 1872 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTrigonocidaridae Mortensen, 1903 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorUrechinidae Duncan, 1889 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorUrechinina (basis of record)
Web site hosted and maintained by Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ) - Contact
Number of visitors: 3926108 - Total hits: 64530611 (since 2004-11-24) - page generated: 2017-12-14 17:54:11 GMT+1