MarBEF Data System



ERMS source details

Zenetos, A.; Gofas, S.; Verlaque, M.; Cinar, M.; Garcia Raso, J.; Bianchi, C.; Morri, C.; Azzurro, E.; Bilecenoglu, M.; Froglia, C.; Siokou, I.; Violanti, D.; Sfriso, A.; San Martin, G.; Giangrande, A.; Katagan, T.; Ballesteros, E.; Ramos-Espla, A.; Mastrototaro, F.; Ocana, O.; Zingone, A.; Gambi, M.; Streftaris, N. (2010). Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2010. A contribution to the application of European Union’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Part I. Spatial distribution. Mediterranean Marine Science. 11(2): 381-493.
155063
10.12681/mms.87 [view]
Zenetos, A.; Gofas, S.; Verlaque, M.; Cinar, M.; Garcia Raso, J.; Bianchi, C.; Morri, C.; Azzurro, E.; Bilecenoglu, M.; Froglia, C.; Siokou, I.; Violanti, D.; Sfriso, A.; San Martin, G.; Giangrande, A.; Katagan, T.; Ballesteros, E.; Ramos-Espla, A.; Mastrototaro, F.; Ocana, O.; Zingone, A.; Gambi, M.; Streftaris, N.
2010
Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2010. A contribution to the application of European Union’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Part I. Spatial distribution
Mediterranean Marine Science
11(2): 381-493
Publication
The state-of-art on alien species in the Mediterranean Sea is presented, making distinctions among the four subregions defined in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive: (i) the Western Mediterranean Sea (WMED); (ii) the Central Mediterranean Sea (CMED); (iii) the Adriatic Sea (ADRIA); and (iv) the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMED). The updated checklist (December 2010) of marine alien species within each subregion, along with their acclimatization status and origin, is provided. A total of 955 alien species is known in the Mediterranean, the vast majority of them having being introduced in the EMED (718), less in the WMED (328) and CMED (267) and least in the Adriatic (171). Of these, 535 species (56%) are established in at least one area. Despite the collective effort of experts who attempted in this work, the number of introduced species remains probably underestimated. Excluding microalgae, for which knowledge is still insufficient, aliens have increased the total species richness of the Mediterranean Sea by 5.9%. This figure should not be directly read as an indication of higher biodiversity, as spreading of so many aliens within the basin is possibly causing biotic homogenization. Thermophilic species, i.e. Indo-Pacific, Indian Ocean, Red Sea, Tropical Atlantic, Tropical Pacific, and circum(sub)tropical, account for 88.4% of the introduced species in the EMED, 72.8% in the CMED, 59.3% in the WMED and 56.1% in the Adriatic. Cold water species, i.e. circumboreal, N Atlantic, and N Pacific, make up a small percentage of the introduced species, ranging between 4.2% and 21.6% and being more numerous in the Adriatic and less so in the EMED. Species that are classified as invasive or potentially invasive are 134 in the whole of the Mediterranean: 108 are present in the EMED, 75 in the CMED, 53 in the Adriatic and 64 in the WMED. The WMED hosts most invasive macrophytes, whereas the EMED has the lion’s share in polychaetes, crustaceans, molluscs and fish.
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Abudefduf vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) (additional source)
Acanthophora nayadiformis (Delile) Papenfuss, 1968 (additional source)
Acanthurus monroviae Steindachner, 1876 (additional source)
Acar plicata (Dillwyn, 1817) (additional source)
Acartia (Acanthacartia) fossae Gurney, 1927 (additional source)
Acartia (Acanthacartia) tonsa Dana, 1849 (additional source)
Acartia (Odontacartia) centrura Giesbrecht, 1889 (additional source)
Acrochaetium codicola Børgesen, 1927 accepted as Colaconema codicola (Børgesen) H.Stegenga, J.J.Bolton & R.J.Anderson, 1997 (additional source)
Acrochaetium robustum Børgesen, 1915 (additional source)
Acrochaetium subseriatum Børgesen, 1932 (additional source)
Acrothamnion preissii (Sonder) E.M.Wollaston, 1968 (additional source)
Acrothrix gracilis Kylin, 1907 (additional source)
Acteocina crithodes (Melvill & Standen, 1901) (additional source)
Aequorea conica Browne, 1905 (additional source)
Agardhiella subulata (C.Agardh) Kraft & M.J.Wynne, 1979 (additional source)
Aglaothamnion feldmanniae Halos, 1965 (additional source)
Alepes djedaba (Forsskål, 1775) (additional source)
Alpheus audouini Coutière, 1905 accepted as Alpheus edwardsii (Audouin, 1826) (additional source)
Alpheus inopinatus Holthuis & Gottlieb, 1958 (additional source)
Alpheus migrans Lewinsohn & Holthuis, 1978 (additional source)
Alpheus rapacida de Man, 1908 (additional source)
Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Alvania dorbignyi (Audouin, 1826) (additional source)
Amathina tricarinata (Linnaeus, 1767) (additional source)
Amphibalanus eburneus (Gould, 1841) (additional source)
Amphicorina pectinata (Banse, 1957) (additional source)
Amphisorus hemprichii Ehrenberg, 1839 (additional source)
Amphistegina lessonii d'Orbigny in Guérin-Méneville, 1832 (additional source)
Amphistegina madagascariensis d'Orbigny in Fornasini, 1903 (additional source)
Amphogona pusilla Hartlaub, 1909 (additional source)
Anadara kagoshimensis (Tokunaga, 1906) (additional source)
Anadara natalensis (Krauss, 1848) (additional source)
Anadara transversa (Say, 1822) (additional source)
Anarhichas lupus Linnaeus, 1758 (additional source)
Angiola punctostriata (E. A. Smith, 1872) (additional source)
Anoplodactylus californicus Hall, 1912 (additional source)
Anoplodactylus digitatus (Böhm, 1879) (additional source)
Antigona lamellaris Schumacher, 1817 (additional source)
Antithamnion amphigeneum A.J.K.Millar, 1990 (additional source)
Antithamnionella boergesenii (Cormaci & G.Furnari) Athanasiadis, 1996 (additional source)
Antithamnionella elegans (Berthold) J.H.Price & D.M.John, 1986 (additional source)
Antithamnionella spirographidis (Schiffner) E.M.Wollaston, 1968 (additional source)
Antithamnionella ternifolia (J.D.Hooker & Harvey) Lyle, 1922 (additional source)
Apionsoma (Apionsoma) misakianum (Ikeda, 1904) (additional source)
Aplysia parvula Mörch, 1863 (additional source)
Apoglossum gregarium (E.Y.Dawson) M.J.Wynne, 1985 (additional source)
Apogon fasciatus (White, 1790) accepted as Ostorhinchus fasciatus (White, 1790) (additional source)
Apogon pharaonis Bellotti, 1874 accepted as Apogonichthyoides pharaonis (Bellotti, 1874) (additional source)
Apogon queketti Gilchrist, 1903 (additional source)
Apogon smithi (Kotthaus, 1970) accepted as Jaydia smithi Kotthaus, 1970 (additional source)
Apoprionospio pygmaea (Hartman, 1961) accepted as Prionospio pygmaeus Hartman, 1961 (additional source)
Aquilonastra burtoni (Gray, 1840) (additional source)
Arachnoidea protecta Harmer, 1915 accepted as Arachnoidella protecta Harmer, 1915 (additional source)
Arctapodema australis (Vanhöffen, 1912) (additional source)
Arietellus pavoninus Sars G.O., 1905 (additional source)
Arius parkii Günther, 1864 (additional source)
Ashtoret lunaris (Forskål, 1775) (additional source)
Asparagopsis armata Harvey, 1855 (additional source)
Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan de Saint-Léon, 1845 (additional source)
Aspidosiphon (Akrikos) mexicanus (Murina, 1967) (additional source)
Aspidosiphon (Aspidosiphon) elegans (Chamisso & Eysenhardt, 1821) (additional source)
Asterias rubens Linnaeus, 1758 (additional source)
Atactodea glabrata (Gmelin, 1791) accepted as Atactodea striata (Gmelin, 1791) (additional source)
Atergatis roseus (Rüppell, 1830) (additional source)
Atys angustatus E. A. Smith, 1872 (additional source)
Atys cylindricus (Helbling, 1779) accepted as Aliculastrum cylindricum (Helbling, 1779) (additional source)
Austrominius modestus (Darwin, 1854) (additional source)
Balanus reticulatus Utinomi, 1967 accepted as Amphibalanus reticulatus (Utinomi, 1967) (additional source)
Balanus trigonus Darwin, 1854 (additional source)
Bemlos leptocheirus (Walker, 1909) (additional source)
Beroe ovata Bruguière, 1789 (additional source)
Beryx splendens Lowe, 1834 (additional source)
Bonnemaisonia hamifera Hariot, 1891 (additional source)
Bostrycapulus odites Collin, 2005 (additional source)
Botrylloides violaceus Oka, 1927 (additional source)
Botryocladia madagascariensis G.Feldmann, 1945 (additional source)
Bowerbankia gracillima (Hincks, 1877) accepted as Amathia gracillima (Hincks, 1877) (additional source)
Branchiomma luctuosum (Grube, 1870) (additional source)
Bregmaceros atlanticus Goode & Bean, 1886 (additional source)
Bugula fulva Ryland, 1960 accepted as Bugulina fulva (Ryland, 1960) (additional source)
Bugula serrata (Lamarck, 1816) accepted as Crisularia serrata (Lamarck, 1816) (additional source)
Bulla arabica Malaquias & Reid, 2008 (additional source)
Bursatella leachii Blainville, 1817 (additional source)
Calanopia elliptica (Dana, 1849) (additional source)
Calanopia media Gurney, 1927 (additional source)
Calappa pelii Herklots, 1851 (additional source)
Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 (additional source)
Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896 (additional source)
Callionymus filamentosus Valenciennes, 1837 (additional source)
Callista florida (Lamarck, 1818) (additional source)
Caloria indica (Bergh, 1896) (additional source)
Campalecium medusiferum Torrey, 1902 accepted as Mitrocomium medusiferum (Torrey, 1902) (additional source)
Canarium mutabile (Swainson, 1821) (additional source)
Canuellina insignis Gurney, 1927 (additional source)
Capitellethus dispar (Ehlers, 1907) (additional source)
Caprella scaura Templeton, 1836 (additional source)
Carcharhinus altimus (Springer, 1950) (additional source)
Carcharhinus falciformis (Müller & Henle, 1839) (additional source)
Cardites akabana (Sturany, 1899) accepted as Centrocardita akabana (Sturany, 1899) (additional source)
Carupa tenuipes Dana, 1852 (additional source)
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