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Clarke, A.; Johnston, N.M. (2003). Antarctic marine benthic diversity. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review. 41: 47-114.
4179
Clarke, A.; Johnston, N.M
2003
Antarctic marine benthic diversity
Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review
41: 47-114
Publication
An unpublished species checklist compiled for background to this paper was used as basis for the Register of Antarctic Marine Species. The paper itself contains no species lists.
Ant'Phipoda Literature database.
Species lists have been compiled for all the major groups of Southern Ocean benthic marine invertebrates, eliminating synonymies where possible and providing a subjective estimate of completeness and reliability for each group. Antarctic marine diversity (pelagic and benthic) is relatively high at the phylum and class level, with the gaps mostly comprising minor, meiofaunal or parasitic groups. Most benthic diversity data come from the continental shelves, with relatively few samples from deeper water. Even for the continental shelves, however, sampling is highly patchy with some areas hardly investigated at all. Over 4100 benthic species have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with the most speciose groups being polychaetes, gastropods and amphipods. Comparison with tropical and temperate regions suggest that decapods, bivalves and teleost fishes are poorly represented in the Southern Ocean benthic marine fauna, whereas pycnogonids, echinoderms and many suspension feeding groups are rich and diverse. Some groups that are currently low in diversity were previously well represented in the Antarctic shallow water marine fauna, notably decapods and many fishes. Other groups have undergone marked radiations in the Southern Ocean, including pycnogonids, amphipods, isopods and teleost fishes; in all cases, however, it is only some lineages that have diversified. This indicates that evolutionary questions concerning the origin, diversification or extinction of the Southern Ocean marine fauna will have no single answer; the evolutionary history of each group appears to reflect a different response to the tectonic, climatic and oceanographic changes to which they have been subject through history. The disposition of southern hemisphere continents makes it difficult to assess whether there is a latitudinal cline in shallow-water marine diversity to mirror that known from the northern hemisphere. Within Antarctica, many species appear to have circumpolar distributions, and the long established biogeographical division into continental Antarctic, Antarctic Peninsula and sub-Antarctic regions have not been challenged by recent sampling. For most groups the frequency distribution of species per genus ratios is typical, though none is well described by the predictions from current evolutionary or null models. Where data are available, size spectra indicate that many Southern Ocean taxa are small, a few spectacular examples of gigantism notwithstanding, and species abundance plots are normal. Knowledge of the Southern Ocean benthic marine fauna has reached a stage where we can now ask powerful evolutionary questions, and the development of new molecular techniques provides the mechanism for answering them
Antarctic
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Achelia communis (Bouvier, 1906) (basis of record)
Achelia spicata (Hodgson, 1915) (basis of record)
Alcyonidium J.V.F.Lamouroux, 1813 (additional source)
Alcyonidium mytili Dalyell, 1848 accepted as Alcyonidioides mytili (Dalyell, 1848) (additional source)
Amblyosyllis granosa Ehlers, 1897 (additional source)
Ammothea carolinensis Leach, 1814 (basis of record)
Ammothea clausi Pfeffer, 1889 (basis of record)
Ammothea minor (Hodgson, 1907) (basis of record)
Amphiblestrum Gray, 1848 (additional source)
Amphiporidae Oersted, 1844 (additional source)
Amphiporus Ehrenberg, 1831 (additional source)
Anasca accepted as Flustrina (additional source)
Anoplodactylus australis (Hodgson, 1914) (basis of record)
Arachnopusiidae Jullien, 1888 (additional source)
Aricidea (Allia) Strelzov, 1973 accepted as Aricidea (Strelzovia) Aguirrezabalaga, 2012 (additional source)
Ascothorax Djakonov, 1914 (additional source)
Austrodecus crenatum Child, 1994 (basis of record)
Austropallene Hodgson, 1915 (basis of record)
Austropallene cornigera (Möbius, 1902) (basis of record)
Austropallene cristata (Bouvier, 1911) (basis of record)
Austroraptus Hodgson, 1907 (basis of record)
Autolytus (Regulatus) Imajima, 1966 accepted as Proceraea Ehlers, 1864 (basis of record)
Bathyplotes moseleyi (Théel, 1886) (basis of record)
Beania Johnston, 1840 (additional source)
Beaniidae Canu & Bassler, 1927 (additional source)
Bicrisia d'Orbigny, 1853 (additional source)
Bowerbankia Farre, 1837 accepted as Amathia Lamouroux, 1812 (additional source)
Bryozoa (additional source)
Buffonellaria Canu & Bassler, 1927 (additional source)
Buffonellodes Strand, 1928 (basis of record)
Bugula Oken, 1815 (additional source)
Bugulella Verrill, 1879 (additional source)
Bugulidae Gray, 1848 (additional source)
Caberea Lamouroux, 1816 (additional source)
Calloporidae Norman, 1903 (additional source)
Capnea (basis of record)
Capneidae Gosse, 1860 (basis of record)
Carbasea Gray, 1848 (additional source)
Cellaria Ellis & Solander, 1786 (additional source)
Cellariidae Fleming, 1828 (additional source)
Celleporella Gray, 1848 (additional source)
Celleporidae Johnston, 1838 (additional source)
Ceratonereis (Composetia) Hartmann-Schröder, 1985 represented as Composetia Hartmann-Schröder, 1985 (basis of record)
Chaperiidae Jullien, 1888 (additional source)
Chaperiopsis Uttley, 1949 (additional source)
Cheilostomatida (additional source)
Conchoderma auritum (Linnaeus, 1767) (additional source)
Corella eumyota Traustedt, 1882 (basis of record)
Cornucopina Levinsen, 1909 (basis of record)
Coronula reginae Darwin, 1854 (basis of record)
Crella (Pytheas) Topsent, 1890 (additional source)
Cribrilinidae Hincks, 1879 (additional source)
Cyclostomatida incertae sedis (basis of record)
Defrancia Bronn, 1825 accepted as Apsendesia Lamouroux, 1821 (additional source)
Desmophyllum cristagalli Milne Edwards & Haime, 1848 accepted as Desmophyllum dianthus (Esper, 1794) (additional source)
Domopora d'Orbigny, 1849 (basis of record)
Electra Lamouroux, 1816 (additional source)
Electridae d'Orbigny, 1851 (additional source)
Ellisina Norman, 1903 (additional source)
Ellisina antarctica Hastings, 1945 (additional source)
Eranno bifrons Kinberg, 1865 (basis of record)
Escharella Gray, 1848 (additional source)
Escharoides Milne Edwards, 1836 (additional source)
Exidmonea David, Mongereau & Pouyet, 1972 (basis of record)
Exochellidae Bassler, 1935 (additional source)
Fenestrulina Jullien, 1888 (additional source)
Figularia Jullien, 1886 (additional source)
Filicrisia d'Orbigny, 1853 (additional source)
Flustridae Fleming, 1828 (additional source)
Galeopsis Jullien, 1903 (additional source)
Golfingia (Golfingia) Lankester, 1885 (basis of record)
Golfingia (Golfingia) elongata (Keferstein, 1862) (basis of record)
Golfingia (Golfingia) margaritacea (Sars, 1851) (basis of record)
Golfingia (Golfingia) muricaudata (Southern, 1913) (basis of record)
Guitarra fimbriata Carter, 1874 (misapplication)
Gymnolaemata (additional source)
Haploscoloplos kerguelensis (McIntosh, 1885) accepted as Leitoscoloplos kerguelensis (McIntosh, 1885) (basis of record)
Harmothoe lagiscoides Willey, 1902 accepted as Harmothoe crosetensis (McIntosh, 1885) (additional source)
Heteronymphon exiguum (Hodgson, 1927) (basis of record)
Hippomonavella Canu & Bassler in Bassler, 1934 (additional source)
Hippopodinidae Levinsen, 1909 (additional source)
Hippothoidae Busk, 1859 (additional source)
Hornera Lamouroux, 1821 (additional source)
Idmidronea Canu & Bassler, 1920 (additional source)
Idmidronea atlantica (Forbes in Johnston, 1847) accepted as Exidmonea atlantica (Forbes in Johnston, 1847) (additional source)
Idmonea Lamouroux, 1821 (additional source)
Iolanthe Beddard, 1886 (basis of record)
Iophon chelifer Ridley & Dendy, 1886 accepted as Iophon cheliferum Ridley & Dendy, 1886 (additional source)
Lacernidae Jullien, 1888 (additional source)
Lepraliellidae Vigneaux, 1949 (additional source)
Limnoriidae White, 1850 (additional source)
Lineidae (additional source)
Macrostylis G. O. Sars, 1864 (additional source)
Mecynoecia Canu, 1918 (additional source)
Micropora Gray, 1848 (additional source)
Microporellidae Hincks, 1879 (additional source)
Microporidae Gray, 1848 (additional source)
Munna Krøyer, 1839 (additional source)
Munneurycope Stephensen, 1912 (additional source)
Mycale Gray, 1867 (additional source)
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