MarBEF Data System



WoRMS taxon details

Alexandrium balechii (Steidinger) Balech, 1995

109708  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:109708)

accepted
Species
marine
(of Gonyaulax balechii Steidinger, 1971) Steidinger, K. A. (1971). <i>Gonyaulax balechii</i> sp. nov. (Dinophyceae) with a discussion of the genera <i>Gonyaulax</i> and <i>Heteraulacus</i>. <em>Phycologia.</em> 10(2-3): 183-187., available online at https://doi.org/10.2216/i0031-8884-10-2-183.1 [details]   
Type locality contained in Tampa Bay  
type locality contained in Tampa Bay [details]
LSID urn:lsid:algaebase.org:taxname:47215  
LSID urn:lsid:algaebase.org:taxname:47215 [details]

Description The cell is medium-sized. The epitheca is long and conical with sides that are generally concave near the cingulum. The...  
Description The cell is medium-sized. The epitheca is long and conical with sides that are generally concave near the cingulum. The apex is variable from largely convex to more or less flattened. The hypotheca is almost always a little shorter. Its shape can vary from rounded or rather irregular to trapezoid with a somewhat convex and quite asymmetric posterior outline. The hypotheca is often rounder than the epitheca and, therefore, is wider near the cingulum. The cingulum is fully excavated, descending (approximately l), with thick margins. The sulcus, however, is moderately excavated. The cruciform region is very peculiar because the S.a. plate is angled up to the right and its acute anterior right edge projects into the epitheca. The PO is oval with the dorsal side more or less flattened. The left side is gently convex, while the right side is obscurely divided into two almost straight segments. The ventral tip is almost alway,s pointed. The comma or foramen is large and has a slightly marked callus. It is surrounded by a peripheral thickening that is perforated by numerous small marginal pores. Frequently, this thickening is interrupted at the right side by a cut or notch that is located where the two segments of the right margin join. The 1' is short, completely disconnected from the PO, andhas a very irregular pentagonal shape. It has two straight lateral margins of which the left one is quite larger than the right one. Of the two anterior margins, the left is very short, sometimes almost a vertex, and it articulates with the ventral edge of 2'. The posterior margin is reinforced and sinuous and is formed by two parts. The left part is almost horizontal and the right one is markedly oblique. The thickening causedby the reinforcement is considerable where the two segments join each other. There is no ventral pore. The 2' is mostly on the dorsal side and ends ventrally in a point or in a very short and oblique margin. The 3' has the usual wide hexagonal shape with variable asymmetry. The 4' is quite long and ends ventrally in a point. The 6' is small and triangular and does not share a common margin with 1'. Its anterior vertex may not even touch 1'. The hypotheca has a short, robust 1"" that is more or less subdivided into two parts and has a strong thickening on the right margin. The posterior left margin is short. The anterior corner is clearly truncated. A sulcal list is not detectable. The 2"" is clearly elongated in the dorsoventral direction (type A). Its margin with the S.p, is straight or slightly convex and not concave as in almost all other species. The S.a. is wide, short, and oblique and has an anterior margin that is concave in the center. The large posterior margin has a sinus. The left branch of the plate is short and wider than the right branch, which is the unciform apophysis. The S.p. is relatively narrow, long, almost arrowhead-shaped, and pointed at the posterior. The reinforced anterior margin has an angle that is sometimes almost symmetric but, at other times, the left half is horizontal and the right is markedly oblique. Of the two left margins, the anterior one is vertical, shorter, straight, and articulated with 1""; whereas, the posterior one is very oblique, straight, or rather concave. The right margin can be divided into an anterior main part and a more or less short posterior paet. This description corresponds to most of the Italian specimens, but, in many of the North American (U.S.A. [Florida]) specimens, this plate is much shorter. The S.d.p. is a typicaily shaped plate that is more or less an elongated rectangle with wide borders. The anterior left corner is briefly truncated to house the S.ac.p. plate. The S.d.p. has numerous pores, especially in its right half where they tend to form longitudinal lines. The S.d.a. has the usual triangular shape and, in this case, has equal lateral sides. Its reinforced, anterior-internal margin is abruptly folded at both ends. The S.s.p, has a long and almost comp [details]
Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2024). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway (taxonomic information republished from AlgaeBase with permission of M.D. Guiry). Alexandrium balechii (Steidinger) Balech, 1995. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: https://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=109708 on 2024-07-15
Date
action
by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
created
2006-07-27 06:59:07Z
changed
Camba Reu, Cibran
2008-11-17 16:35:54Z
checked
2008-11-20 09:49:59Z
changed
2010-10-13 08:29:17Z
changed
2015-06-26 12:00:51Z
changed

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original description  (of Gonyaulax balechii Steidinger, 1971) Steidinger, K. A. (1971). <i>Gonyaulax balechii</i> sp. nov. (Dinophyceae) with a discussion of the genera <i>Gonyaulax</i> and <i>Heteraulacus</i>. <em>Phycologia.</em> 10(2-3): 183-187., available online at https://doi.org/10.2216/i0031-8884-10-2-183.1 [details]   

basis of record Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world's oceans. <em>Acta Bot. Croat.</em> 64(1): 129-212. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2024). AlgaeBase. <em>World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway.</em> searched on YYYY-MM-DD., available online at http://www.algaebase.org [details]   

additional source Tomas, C.R. (Ed.). (1997). Identifying marine phytoplankton. Academic Press: San Diego, CA [etc.] (USA). ISBN 0-12-693018-X. XV, 858 pp., available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9780126930184 [details]   

additional source Brandt, S. (2001). Dinoflagellates, <B><I>in</I></B>: Costello, M.J. <i>et al.</i> (Ed.) (2001). <i>European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels,</i> 50: pp. 47-53 (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Steidinger, K. A., M. A. Faust, and D. U. Hernández-Becerril. 2009. Dinoflagellates (Dinoflagellata) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 131–154 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College [details]   

additional source Balech, E. 1995. The Genus <i>Alexandrium</i> Halim (Dinoflagellata). Sherkin Island Marine Station, Sherkin Island, Co. Cork, Ireland, 151. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Moestrup, Ø., Akselman, R., Cronberg, G., Elbraechter, M., Fraga, S., Halim, Y., Hansen, G., Hoppenrath, M., Larsen, J., Lundholm, N., Nguyen, L. N., Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae., available online at http://www.marinespecies.org/HAB [details]   

additional source Montresor, M., Marino, D., Zingone, A. & Dafnis, G. (1990). Three Alexandrium species form coastal Tyrrhenian waters (Mediterranean Sea). <em>In: Granéli, E., Sundström, B., Edler, L. & Anderson, D. M. [Eds.] Toxic Marine Phytoplankton.</em> Elsevier, Amstermdam, pp. 82-87. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

new combination reference Balech, E. (1985). The genus <i>Alexandrium</i> or <i>Gonyaulax</i> of the <i>tamarensis</i> group. In: D.M. Anderson, A.W. White and D.G. Baden (Eds.) Toxic Dinoflagellates. New York: Elsevier. P. 33–38. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 
 
 Present  Present in aphia/obis/gbif/idigbio   Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 
   

From editor or global species database
LSID urn:lsid:algaebase.org:taxname:47215 [details]

From regional or thematic species database
Description The cell is medium-sized. The epitheca is long and conical with sides that are generally concave near the cingulum. The apex is variable from largely convex to more or less flattened. The hypotheca is almost always a little shorter. Its shape can vary from rounded or rather irregular to trapezoid with a somewhat convex and quite asymmetric posterior outline. The hypotheca is often rounder than the epitheca and, therefore, is wider near the cingulum. The cingulum is fully excavated, descending (approximately l), with thick margins. The sulcus, however, is moderately excavated. The cruciform region is very peculiar because the S.a. plate is angled up to the right and its acute anterior right edge projects into the epitheca. The PO is oval with the dorsal side more or less flattened. The left side is gently convex, while the right side is obscurely divided into two almost straight segments. The ventral tip is almost alway,s pointed. The comma or foramen is large and has a slightly marked callus. It is surrounded by a peripheral thickening that is perforated by numerous small marginal pores. Frequently, this thickening is interrupted at the right side by a cut or notch that is located where the two segments of the right margin join. The 1' is short, completely disconnected from the PO, andhas a very irregular pentagonal shape. It has two straight lateral margins of which the left one is quite larger than the right one. Of the two anterior margins, the left is very short, sometimes almost a vertex, and it articulates with the ventral edge of 2'. The posterior margin is reinforced and sinuous and is formed by two parts. The left part is almost horizontal and the right one is markedly oblique. The thickening causedby the reinforcement is considerable where the two segments join each other. There is no ventral pore. The 2' is mostly on the dorsal side and ends ventrally in a point or in a very short and oblique margin. The 3' has the usual wide hexagonal shape with variable asymmetry. The 4' is quite long and ends ventrally in a point. The 6' is small and triangular and does not share a common margin with 1'. Its anterior vertex may not even touch 1'. The hypotheca has a short, robust 1"" that is more or less subdivided into two parts and has a strong thickening on the right margin. The posterior left margin is short. The anterior corner is clearly truncated. A sulcal list is not detectable. The 2"" is clearly elongated in the dorsoventral direction (type A). Its margin with the S.p, is straight or slightly convex and not concave as in almost all other species. The S.a. is wide, short, and oblique and has an anterior margin that is concave in the center. The large posterior margin has a sinus. The left branch of the plate is short and wider than the right branch, which is the unciform apophysis. The S.p. is relatively narrow, long, almost arrowhead-shaped, and pointed at the posterior. The reinforced anterior margin has an angle that is sometimes almost symmetric but, at other times, the left half is horizontal and the right is markedly oblique. Of the two left margins, the anterior one is vertical, shorter, straight, and articulated with 1""; whereas, the posterior one is very oblique, straight, or rather concave. The right margin can be divided into an anterior main part and a more or less short posterior paet. This description corresponds to most of the Italian specimens, but, in many of the North American (U.S.A. [Florida]) specimens, this plate is much shorter. The S.d.p. is a typicaily shaped plate that is more or less an elongated rectangle with wide borders. The anterior left corner is briefly truncated to house the S.ac.p. plate. The S.d.p. has numerous pores, especially in its right half where they tend to form longitudinal lines. The S.d.a. has the usual triangular shape and, in this case, has equal lateral sides. Its reinforced, anterior-internal margin is abruptly folded at both ends. The S.s.p, has a long and almost comp [details]

Harmful effect A. balechii blooms have coincided with fish kills in Tampa Bay, Florida, but these kills were more likely related to decrease in dissolved oxygen levels (Steidinger 1971). However, no adverse effects were observed, during blooms of this species in the Tyrrhenian Sea (Montresor et al., 1990). [details]

Identification Its structure is very different than the structure of its other congenera. It is useful to note that the S.a., S.p., S.s.a., S.s.p, and 6" plates along with the sculpture are very characteristic. [details]

Verified sequences There are not available sequences of this species [details]
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