Cnidaria Anthozoa: Deep-water azooxanthellate Scleractinia from Vanuatu, and Wallis and Futuna Islands
Cairns, S.D. (1999). Cnidaria Anthozoa: Deep-water azooxanthellate Scleractinia from Vanuatu, and Wallis and Futuna Islands, in: Crosnier, A. (Ed.) Résultats des Campagnes MUSORSTOM 20. Mémoires du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle. Série A, Zoologie, 180: pp. 31-167
In: Crosnier, A. (Ed.) (1999). Résultats des Campagnes MUSORSTOM 20. Mémoires du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle. Série A, Zoologie, 180. Publications Scientifiques du Muséum: Paris. ISBN 2-85653-520-8. 588 pp.
In: Mémoires du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle. Série A, Zoologie. Editions du Muséum: Paris. ISSN 0078-9747
A total of 134 Recent species of azooxanthellate Scleractinia are reported from the Vanuatu (116 species) and Wallis and Futuna (83 species) Archipelagos, all but one being new records for this region of the tropical central Pacific. The newly reported specimens originate primarily from the MUSORSTOM 7 and 8 expeditions, including approximately 4400 specimens from 227 stations, most of these stations from deeper than 100 m. Sixteen new species and one new subspecies are described, and two new combinations are proposed: Asterosmilia gigas and Javania fusca. Tables of comparison are provided for the Indo-Pacific species of Fungiacyathus (Fungiacyathus)-, the Recent Trocliocyalhus (Aplocyathus)\ all species oi Aulocyathus\ all species of spined Deltocyathus\ and the Recent species and subspecies of Antheiniphyllia. To facilitate comparisons of species among these taxa, three additional species having distributions other than the Vanuatu/Wallis and Futuna region are described as new: Deltocyathus corrugalus, Antheiniphyllia inultidentata, and A. inacrolobata. The distribution and bathymétrie ranges of the 134 species known from the Vanuatu/Wallis and Futuna region are tabulated. Within the tropical central Pacific these corals show a strong affinity with those from the ridges and islands north of New Zealand (56 species) and a lesser relationship with the Hawaiian Island fauna (24 species). Other regions in the central Pacific are too poorly known for comparison. Beyond the tropical central Pacific, the Vanuatu/Wallis and Futuna fauna is part of the larger Indo-Polynesian province, sharing 95 (71%) of its species with the tropical western Pacific and 62 species (46%) with the Indian Ocean. Only seven species are found in common with the tropical eastern Pacific and 11 with the Atlantic Ocean. Finally, 43 species from the Vanuatu/Wallis and Futuna Archipelagos are also known from temperate Japan (exclusive of the Ryukyu Islands) and 32 from temperate New Zealand and southern Australia. Examples of commensal/parasitic relationships are reported to occur with petrarcid ascothoracican crustaceans (2 coral hosts) and acrothoracican cirripede crustaceans (8 hosts). The shells of the gastropod Xenophora ("carrier shells") were found to be effective collectors of deep-water corals; a total of 19 coral species were found incorporated into the shells, including three species that were found only on these shells and another five species that were otherwise very rarely collected by conventional means.