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Daly, M.M., Fautin D.G., Cappola V.A., 2003. Systematics of the Hexacorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 139 3: 419-437.
Daly, M. M.; Fautin, D. G.; Cappola, V. A.
Systematics of the Hexacorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society
139(3): 419-437
The composition of and relationships among higher-level groups within the anthozoan subclass Hexacorallia (= Zoantharia) has been controversial because independent analyses of anatomy, life history, ultrastructure, and molecular sequences have failed to provide a consistent framework for drawing taxonomic boundaries or understanding phylogenetic relationships. The relationship among stony corals (order Scleractinia), sea anemones (order Actiniaria), and corallimorpharians (order Corallimorpharia) has been particularly problematic. We synthesize existing studies and provide new anatomical and molecular evidence that bear on the question of ordinal circumscription and relationships. We find that orders Actiniaria, Antipatharia, Ceriantharia, Corallimorpharia, Scleractinia, and Zoanthidea are monophyletic; Corallimorpharia is most closely related to Scleractinia. We infer that many traditional diagnostic characters are shared primitive features and thus poor indicators of phylogenetic relationships. Although the major nodes of the hexacorallian tree are well supported by multiple types of data, questions about skeletal evolution and subordinal taxonomy remain unanswered pending denser taxonomic and character sampling.
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Systematics, Taxonomy
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2013-01-12 18:30:12Z

Aiptasia Gosse, 1858 (additional source)
Anemonia Risso, 1827 (additional source)
Anthopleura Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860 (additional source)
Antipathes Pallas, 1766 (additional source)
Balanophyllia Wood, 1844 (additional source)
Bunodosoma Verrill, 1899 (additional source)
Caryophyllia Lamarck, 1801 (additional source)
Cerianthus Delle Chiaje, 1841 (additional source)
Cladocora Ehrenberg, 1834 (additional source)
Corynactis Allman, 1846 (additional source)
Enallopsammia Michelloti, 1871 (additional source)
Flabellum Lesson, 1831 (additional source)
Fungiacyathus Sars, 1872 (additional source)
Leptopsammia Milne Edwards & Haime, 1848 (additional source)
Metridium de Blainville, 1824 (additional source)
Monomyces Ehrenberg, 1834 (additional source)
Nematostella Stephenson, 1935 (additional source)
Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816 (additional source)
Paracyathus Milne Edwards & Haime, 1848 (additional source)
Parazoanthus Haddon & Shackleton, 1891 (additional source)
Phyllangia Milne Edwards & Haime, 1848 (additional source)
Polycyathus Duncan, 1876 (additional source)
Stichopathes Brook, 1889 (additional source)
Thalamophyllia Duchassaing, 1870 (additional source)
Urticina Ehrenberg, 1834 (additional source)
Vaughanella Gravier, 1915 (additional source)
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