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Nygren, Arne. (2004). Revision of Autolytinae (Syllidae: Polychaeta). Zootaxa. 680: 1-314.
23023
Nygren, Arne
2004
Revision of Autolytinae (Syllidae: Polychaeta)
Zootaxa
680: 1-314
Publication
World Polychaeta Database (WPolyDb). Monograph
Available for editors  PDF available
Autolytinae is revised based on available types, and newly collected specimens. Out of 170 nominal species, 18 are considered as incertae sedis, 43 are regarded as junior synonyms, and 25 are referred to as nomina dubia. The relationships of Autolytinae is assessed from 51 morphological characters and 211 states for 76 ingroup-taxa, and 460 molecular characters from mitochondrial 16S rDNA and nuclear 18S rDNA for 31 ingroup-taxa; outgroups include 12 non-autolytine syllid polychaetes. Two analyses are provided, one including morphological data only, and one with combined morphological and molecular data sets. The resulting strict consensus tree from the combined data is chosen for a reclassification. Three main clades are identified: Procerini trib. n., Autolytini Grube, 1850, and Epigamia gen. n. Proceraea Ehlers, 1864 and Myrianida Milne Edwards, 1845 are referred to as nomen protectum, while Scolopendra Slabber, 1781, Podonereis Blainville, 1818, Amytis Savigny, 1822, Polynice Savigny, 1822, and Nereisyllis Blainville, 1828 are considered nomina oblita. The following new generic synonymies are introduced: Myrianida Milne Edwards, 1845, senior synonym to Autolytus Grube, 1850; Pterautolytus Ehlers, 1907, and Regulatus Imajima, 1966, both junior synonyms to Proceraea Ehlers, 1864; and Autosyllis Imajima & Hartman, 1964, junior synonym to Virchowia Langerhans, 1879. The following new genera are described: Epigamia, Pachyprocerastea, Planicirrata, Paraproceraea, and Imajimaea. The following new species are described: Proceraea pleijeli from the Atlantic coast of Spain, Proceraea paraurantiaca from the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts of France and Spain, and Proceraea hanssoni and Myrianida flava from Washington State, U.S.A. Proceraea madeirensis constitutes a new name for P. fasciata Langerhans, 1879 and 50 new combinations are introduced. Additionally, a number of species-level synonymies are proposed. Phylogenetic name definitions are given in parallel to a Linnean classification. Corresponding author: Arne Nygren, E-mail: arne.nygren@zool.gu.se 
Systematics, Taxonomy
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Amytis Savigny, 1822 accepted as Proceraea Ehlers, 1864 (status source)
Amytis prismatica (O.F. Müller, 1776) accepted as Proceraea prismatica (O.F. Müller, 1776) (source of synonymy)
Autolytides Malaquin, 1893 accepted as Myrianida Milne Edwards, 1845 (source of synonymy)
Autolytinae Langerhans, 1879 (redescription)
Autolytinae incertae sedis (basis of record)
Autolytini Langerhans, 1879 (redescription)
Autolytus Grube, 1850 accepted as Myrianida Milne Edwards, 1845 (source of synonymy)
Autolytus (Autolytides) Malaquin, 1893 accepted as Myrianida Milne Edwards, 1845 (source of synonymy)
Autolytus (Autolytides) inermis Saint Joseph, 1887 accepted as Myrianida inermis (Saint Joseph, 1887) (new combination reference)
Autolytus (Proceraea) ornatus Marion & Bobretzky, 1875 accepted as Myrianida rubropunctata (Grube, 1860) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus (Proceraea) picta (Ehlers, 1864) accepted as Proceraea picta Ehlers, 1864 (source of synonymy)
Autolytus (Regulatus) Imajima, 1966 accepted as Proceraea Ehlers, 1864 (source of synonymy)
Autolytus (Stephanosyllis) Claparède, 1864 accepted as Proceraea Ehlers, 1864 (source of synonymy)
Autolytus alexandri Malmgren, 1867 accepted as Epigamia alexandri (Malmgren, 1867) (new combination reference)
Autolytus benazzii Cognetti, 1953 accepted as Myrianida brachycephala (Marenzeller, 1874) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus brachycephalus (Marenzeller, 1874) accepted as Myrianida brachycephala (Marenzeller, 1874) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus convolutus Cognetti, 1953 accepted as Myrianida convoluta (Cognetti, 1953) (new combination reference)
Autolytus dentalius Imajima, 1966 accepted as Myrianida dentalia (Imajima, 1966) (new combination reference)
Autolytus edwardsi Saint Joseph, 1887 accepted as Myrianida edwarsi (Saint Joseph, 1887) (new combination reference)
Autolytus edwarsi Saint Joseph, 1887 accepted as Myrianida edwarsi (Saint Joseph, 1887) (new combination reference)
Autolytus ehbiensis Saint Joseph, 1887 accepted as Myrianida prolifera (O.F. Müller, 1788) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus emertoni Verrill, 1881 (basis of record)
Autolytus fallax Malmgren, 1867 accepted as Proceraea cornuta (Agassiz, 1862) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus groenlandicus Wesenberg-Lund, 1947 accepted as Autolytus emertoni Verrill, 1881 (source of synonymy)
Autolytus hesperidium Claparède, 1868 accepted as Myrianida hesperidium (Claparède, 1868) (new combination reference)
Autolytus incertus Malmgren, 1867 accepted as Proceraea prismatica (O.F. Müller, 1776) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus inermis Saint-Joseph, 1887 accepted as Myrianida inermis (Saint Joseph, 1887) (new combination reference)
Autolytus irregularis Imajima & Hartman, 1964 accepted as Myrianida irregularis (Imajima & Hartman, 1964) (new combination reference)
Autolytus labordai San Martín & López, 2002 accepted as Epigamia labordai (San Martín & López, 2002) (new combination reference)
Autolytus langerhansi Gidholm, 1967 accepted as Myrianida langerhansi (Gidholm, 1967) (new combination reference)
Autolytus longeferiens Saint Joseph, 1887 accepted as Epigamia alexandri (Malmgren, 1867) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus longigula Verrill, 1881 accepted as Epigamia alexandri (Malmgren, 1867) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus longoprimicirratus López, San Martín & Jiménez, 1997 accepted as Myrianida longoprimicirrata (López, San Martín & Jiménez, 1997) (new combination reference)
Autolytus lugens Saint Joseph, 1887 accepted as Myrianida quindecimdentata (Langerhans, 1884) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus macrophthalmus (Marenzeller, 1875) accepted as Epigamia macrophthalma (Marenzeller, 1875) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus megodon Saint Joseph, 1887 accepted as Proceraea scapularis (Claparède, 1864) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus mirabilis Verrill, 1882 accepted as Myrianida brachycephala (Marenzeller, 1874) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus neapolitanus Cognetti, 1953 (additional source)
Autolytus newtoni Malmgren, 1867 accepted as Epigamia alexandri (Malmgren, 1867) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus paradoxus Saint Joseph, 1887 accepted as Epigamia alexandri (Malmgren, 1867) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus pictus (Ehlers, 1864) accepted as Proceraea picta Ehlers, 1864 (source of synonymy)
Autolytus prismaticus (O.F. Müller, 1776) accepted as Proceraea prismatica (O.F. Müller, 1776) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus prolifer (O.F. Müller, 1788) accepted as Myrianida prolifera (O.F. Müller, 1788) (new combination reference)
Autolytus prolifera (O.F. Müller, 1788) accepted as Myrianida prolifera (O.F. Müller, 1788) (new combination reference)
Autolytus punctatus Saint Joseph, 1887 accepted as Myrianida brachycephala (Marenzeller, 1874) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus quindecemdentatus [auct. misspelling for 'quindecimdentatus'] accepted as Myrianida quindecimdentata (Langerhans, 1884) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus quindecimdentatus Langerhans, 1884 accepted as Myrianida quindecimdentata (Langerhans, 1884) (new combination reference)
Autolytus quinquedecimdentatus [auct. misspelling] accepted as Myrianida quindecimdentata (Langerhans, 1884) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus roseus Claparède, 1864 (status source)
Autolytus rubrolineatus Gildhom, 1967 accepted as Myrianida irregularis (Imajima & Hartman, 1964) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus rubropunctatus (Grube, 1860) accepted as Myrianida rubropunctata (Grube, 1860) (new combination reference)
Autolytus rubrovittatus Claparède, 1864 (status source)
Autolytus sardai San Martín & Alós, 1987 accepted as Epigamia macrophthalma (Marenzeller, 1875) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus smittiae Malaquin, 1893 (status source)
Autolytus syllisetosus Langerhans, 1884 (status source)
Autolytus trilineatus Berkeley & Berkeley, 1945 accepted as Proceraea prismatica (O.F. Müller, 1776) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus tyrrhenicus Cognetti, 1953 accepted as Myrianida tyrrhenica (Cognetti, 1953) (source of synonymy)
Autolytus usaensis Imajima, 1966 accepted as Epigamia usaensis (Imajima, 1966) (new combination reference)
Autolytus verrilli Marenzeller, 1892 accepted as Epigamia alexandri (Malmgren, 1867) (source of synonymy)
Autosyllis Imajima & Hartman, 1964 accepted as Virchowia Langerhans, 1879 (source of synonymy)
Crithida Gosse, 1855 accepted as Myrianida Milne Edwards, 1845 (source of synonymy)
Crithida thalassina Gosse, 1855 (status source)
Diploceraea Grube, 1850 accepted as Myrianida Milne Edwards, 1845 (source of synonymy)
Epigamia Nygren, 2004 (original description)
Epigamia alexandri (Malmgren, 1867) (redescription)
Epigamia labordai (San Martín & López, 2002) (redescription)
Epigamia macrophthalma (Marenzeller, 1875) (redescription)
Epigamia usaensis (Imajima, 1966) (redescription)
Heterosyllis Claparède, 1863 (status source)
Heterosyllis branchiata Claparède, 1863 (status source)
Imajimaea Nygren, 2004 (original description)
Imajimaea draculai (San Martín & López, 2002) (redescription)
Levidorum Hartman, 1967 (redescription)
Levidorum pori (Ben-Eliahu, 1977) (redescription)
Myrianida Milne Edwards, 1845 (redescription)
Myrianida Milne Edwards, 1845 (basis of record)
Myrianida brachycephala (Marenzeller, 1874) (redescription)
Myrianida cirrata Treadwell, 1931 accepted as Proceraea cornuta (Agassiz, 1862) (source of synonymy)
Myrianida convoluta (Cognetti, 1953) (redescription)
Myrianida dentalia (Imajima, 1966) (redescription)
Myrianida edwarsi (Saint Joseph, 1887) (redescription)
Myrianida fasciata Milne Edwards, 1845 accepted as Myrianida pinnigera (Montagu, 1808) (source of synonymy)
Myrianida hesperidium (Claparède, 1868) (redescription)
Myrianida inermis (Saint Joseph, 1887) (redescription)
Myrianida irregularis (Imajima & Hartman, 1964) (redescription)
Myrianida langerhansi (Gidholm, 1967) (redescription)
Myrianida longoprimicirrata (López, San Martín & Jiménez, 1997) (redescription)
Myrianida maculata Claparède, 1868 accepted as Myrianida pinnigera (Montagu, 1808) (source of synonymy)
Myrianida picta (Ehlers, 1864) accepted as Proceraea picta Ehlers, 1864 (source of synonymy)
Myrianida pinnigera (Montagu, 1808) (redescription)
Myrianida prolifera (O.F. Müller, 1788) (redescription)
Myrianida quindecimdentata (Langerhans, 1884) (redescription)
Myrianida rubropunctata (Grube, 1860) (redescription)
Nereis bifrons O.F. Müller, 1786 (status source)
Nereis corniculata O.F. Müller, 1788 (status source)
Nereisyllis Blainville, 1828 accepted as Proceraea Ehlers, 1864 (status source)
Nereisyllis prismatica (O.F. Müller, 1776) accepted as Proceraea prismatica (O.F. Müller, 1776) (source of synonymy)
Odontosyllis fasciata (M Sars, 1869) (new combination reference)
Paraprocerastea San Martín & Alós, 1989 (redescription)
Paraprocerastea crocantinae San Martín & Alós, 1989 (redescription)
European waters (ERMS scope) for Proceraea fasciata (Bosc, 1802)  (inaccurate)
 Classification

The taxonomic position of this species within Autolytinae is ambiguous; thus, even tough the name Autolytus is ... [details]

 Classification

The taxonomic position of this species within Autolytinae is ambiguous; thus, even tough the name Autolytus is ... [details]

 Classification

Since this species belongs to Myrianida incertae sedis, the original generic name Autolytus (now synonym of ... [details]

 Classification

Procerini is a tribus of the subfamily Autolytinae and is parent taxon of the genera Procerarea, Virchowia, ... [details]

 Distribution

North West Atlantic: Massachusetts to South Carolina; Puerto Rico. This is a North American (not European) species.  [details]

 Homonymy

Proceraea fasciata Langerhans, 1879 is a secondary junior homonym of P. fasciata (Bosc, 1802), which is a North ... [details]

 New combination

Umbellisyllis fasciata Sars, 1869 does not belong to Autolytinae as previously stated. It was referred ... [details]

 Nomenclature

After Nygren's revision of Autolytinae this genus+subgenus combination cannot be considered valid [details]

 Remark

Type material does not exist. The original description was based on a female stolon, of the Proceraea-type, ... [details]

 Remark

Type material of the genus does not exist. According to Nygren (2004) it should be considered nomen dubium [details]

 Remark

Type material does not exist. According to Nygren (2004) it should be considered nomen dubium [details]

 Status

Type material does not exist. According to Nygren (2004: 193) the species should be considered as a nomen dubium.  [details]

 Synonymy

The genus Umbellisyllis does not belong to Autolytinae. The type species belongs in Odontosyllis (fide Nygren, ... [details]

 Taxonomy

After Nygren's (2004) revision of the autolytin taxa, the genus Autolytus was considered as a junior synonym of ... [details]

 Taxonomy

Nygren (2004: 115), in his revision of the subfamily Autolytinae considered the genus Autolytus Grube, 1850 as a ... [details]

 Taxonomy

The taxonomic status of Umbellisyllis is under debate [details]

 Type material

Type material does not exist. According to Nygren (2004) it should be considered nomen dubium [details]

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